Among patients with diabetes and depression in India, does a 12-month collaborative care intervention that includes nonphysician care coordinators, decision support functions in electronic health records, and specialist case reviews improve depressive symptoms and measures of cardiometabolic health more than usual care at 24 months?
In this randomized clinical trial that included 404 patients at urban clinics in India with poorly controlled diabetes and depression, patients in the collaborative care intervention group, compared with the usual care group, were significantly more likely to achieve the composite outcome of at least a 50% reduction in the 20-item Symptom Checklist Depression Scale score and at least 1 of the following: reduction of at least 0.5 percentage points in hemoglobin A1c, reduction of at least 5 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure, or reduction of at least 10 mg/dL in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 24 months (71.6% vs 54.7%).
Among patients with diabetes and depressive symptoms in urban India, a multicomponent collaborative care intervention resulted in statistically significantly greater improvements in a composite measure of depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic indices compared with usual care.
Mental health comorbidities are increasing worldwide and worsen outcomes for people with diabetes, especially when care is fragmented.
To assess whether collaborative care vs usual care lowers depressive symptoms and improves cardiometabolic indices among adults with diabetes and depression.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Parallel, open-label, pragmatic randomized clinical trial conducted at 4 socioeconomically diverse clinics in India that recruited patients with type 2 diabetes; a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of at least 10 (range, 0-27); and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of at least 8%, systolic blood pressure (SBP) of at least 140 mm Hg, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of at least 130 mg/dL. The first patient was enrolled on March 9, 2015, and the last was enrolled on May 31, 2016; the final follow-up visit was July 14, 2018.
Patients randomized to the intervention group (n = 196) received 12 months of self-management support from nonphysician care coordinators, decision support electronic health records facilitating physician treatment adjustments, and specialist case reviews; they were followed up for an additional 12 months without intervention. Patients in the control group (n = 208) received usual care over 24 months.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the percentage of patients at 24 months who had at least a 50% reduction in Symptom Checklist Depression Scale (SCL-20) scores (range, 0-4; higher scores indicate worse symptoms) and a reduction of at least 0.5 percentage points in HbA1c, 5 mm Hg in SBP, or 10 mg/dL in LDL cholesterol. Prespecified secondary outcomes were percentage of patients at 12 and 24 months who met treatment targets (HbA1c <7.0%, SBP <130 mm Hg, LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dL [<70 mg/dL if