Underlining the affect of the Covid-19 pandemic on the functioning of courts, pendency of cases in all levels of the judiciary has elevated considerably, reaching an all-time excessive in a single yr of digital functioning.
According to the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG), a authorities platform monitoring judicial knowledge, backlog of cases in district courts noticed a pointy improve of 18.2 per cent between December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2020.
In the earlier yr, 2018-2019, the rise was 7.79 per cent and in 2017-2018 it elevated 11.6 per cent.
In the 25 excessive courts throughout the nation, pendency of cases in 2019-2020 elevated 20.4 per cent. In the earlier yr, in 2018-2019, it elevated solely 5.29 per cent.
In the Supreme Court, pendency rose 10.35 per cent — from 60,469 cases on March 1, 2020 to 66,727 on March 1, 2021. The improve is the very best at least since 2013 when the Supreme Court started making month-to-month pendency knowledge publicly accessible. In absolute phrases, a backlog of 66,727 cases is the very best that the highest court docket has ever had.
On Thursday, a Supreme Court bench headed by CJI S A Bobde noticed that pendency of cases “has gone out of control”, and mentioned it is going to concern tips for appointment of non permanent judges to assist deal with the backlog.
In earlier years, the backlog improve was considerably decrease within the SC. For instance, between March 1, 2019 and March 1, 2020, the backlog noticed a rise of 4.6 per cent and between March 1, 2018 and March 1, 2019, the rise was 3.9 per cent. In 2017-2018, in the identical interval, pendency in truth lowered 11.9 per cent from 62,161 to 55,529 cases.
The sharp improve in backlog when the court docket functioned within the digital mode is regardless of elevated judicial hours. According to a press assertion issued by the Supreme Court on January 28, the court docket functioned greater than common throughout the pandemic. “Beyond the same old minimal required 190 days Court sittings in a Calendar Year, the Court was practical for 231 days, together with 13 trip sittings within the yr 2020.
The Registry additionally remained practical for 271 days as in opposition to a mean of 268 days within the earlier three years,” the assertion mentioned.
A Law Ministry response on February 3 to a question in Lok Sabha acknowledged that the SC has had practically 32,000 hearings throughout the lockdown interval.
Members of the Bar, nevertheless, have been pushing for resuming bodily functioning of the court docket to take care of the rising backlog.
“The rise is significantly high but even that does not convey the complete picture. The filing also had gone down during the pandemic. If you take into account cases that would be usually filed, the backlog for last year would be even higher,” senior advocate and president of the Supreme Court Bar Association Vikas Singh mentioned.
“There is already a huge vacancy of judges in the country and restricted functioning of courts has added to that. But the judges are not doing anything to remedy the situation,” he added.
Ad-hoc judges might be appointed to excessive courts in addition to the Supreme Court briefly beneath Articles 128 and 224A of the Constitution. However, there are a number of vacancies in common appointments. According to knowledge by the Department of Justice, excessive courts throughout the nation are quick of 38.8 per cent judges as of 1 March. Against a sanctioned power of 1080 judges, there are 661 judges presently in excessive courts. The Supreme Court is brief of 4 judges in opposition to a sanctioned power of 34 judges, other than one other emptiness when CJI Bobde retires on April 23.
Since lockdown began in March final yr, district courts have heard 45,73,159 cases and the High Courts and Supreme Court have heard 20,60,318 and 52,353 cases, respectively until December 31, 2020 by means of video conferencing.